Usually, an annotated bibliography is done in alphabetical order, but in this activity we are going to combine an annotated bibliography with a paper outline. This activity will help you not only to decide on what sources you will use and what you will say about them, but it will also help you consider where your sources might be useful in your argument.
On a Word or .rft file, create a basic outline that included the following sections:

  • Introduction
  • Thesis: (write your current thesis)
  • Body Paragraph
  • Body Paragraph
  • Body Paragraph
  • (you may add as many body paragraphs as you need, but three is the minimum).
  • Conclusion

Five sources are required. Two must be from peer reviewed journals.The parts are:
Each annotated bibliography contains three parts.

  • Citation (you may use whatever citation style is preferred in your field).
  • Useful Quotes
  • and an Evaluative Annotation. In your evaluative annotation also note why you placed the quote where you did.

For example:
Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing Process Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985. 134-165. Rpt. in Cross-Talk in Comp Theory: A Reader. Ed. Victor Villanueva, Jr. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1997. 589-619.
Quote #1: Every time a student sits down to write for us, he has to invent the university for the occasion–invent the university, that is, or a branch of it, like history or anthropology or economics or English. The student has to learn to speak our language, to speak as we do, to try on the peculiar ways of knowing, selecting, evaluating, reporting, concluding, and arguing that define the discourse of our community.”
Quote #2: “There is, to be sure, an important distinction to be made between learning history, say, and learning to write as a historian.”
Evaluative Annotation:
This source will be vital in my argument because it was the seminal article that recognized the need for students to understand that they are entering academic conversations in college-level writing. It establishes that college-level writers are learning the discourse patterns of their fields. This shift in theory, I will postulate, has still yet to trickle down to high school level pedagogy. This article provides the theoretical backing that supports my entire argument. I placed this quote in the introduction because it introduces a key idea that needs to be established before I get to my thesis.
Student Example of completed assignment:

  1. click here for more information on this paper

Annotated Bibliography

Doane, G. (2002). In the spirit of creativity: the learning and teaching of ethics in
nursing. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 521-528. doi:10.1046/j.1365-
Quote #1: “. . .modern thinkers felt that rather than being a natural trait of human life, morality was something that needed to be created and injected into human conduct.”
Quote #2: “Seeing the rationalist theories and principles as too abstract and distant from the complex, human milieu in which nurses work, and divorced from the everyday activities of practice, nurse ethicists have argued that they fall short when dealing with the relational and contextual nature of nursing care.”
Evaluation Annotation:
This source is helpful in introducing the topic of my argument to the audience. The source itself discusses the development of a teaching process that nurtures not only the caring and the critical spirit, but also the creative spirit of nursing. The first quote helps bring to the point that moral values are thought to an individual and differ from person to person. This helps to propose an idea to educate all nurses on a universal code of ethics for administering patient care. The second quote brings into point what is wrong with the current principles of nursing, and how they lack the ability to create a relationship with the patient during nursing care. I will use these quotations in my introduction paragraph to provide a background on the issue and build up to my thesis.
Though nurses understand the definition of patient care, they must learn the ethical duties that go along with caring for a patient by attending ethical training classes.
Body Paragraph
Cortis, J., & Kendrick, K. (2003). Nursing ethics, caring and culture. Nursing Ethics,
10(1), 77-88. doi:10.1191/0969733003ne576oa
Quote #1: “The findings of this study have direct implications for nursing because they suggest that the cultural dimension of nursing care is frequently ignored or marginalized.”
Quote #2:  “When care is rhetorical it can never be ethical.”
Evaluation Annotation:
This source is a study which explores the expectations and perceived experiences of nursing care among the Pakistani community in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. It helps to support the opinion that the patient care of today’s nurses is a rhetorical task which requires little to none patient interaction. The study proves that nurses are performing general patient care but make no effort for a deep nurse-patient connection. They express no efforts to comfort or interact with patients they view as minorities. This is a prime example why nurses must understand their ethical duties.
Body Paragraph
Leuter, C., Petrucci, C., Mattei, A., Tabassi, G., & Lancia, L. (2013). Ethical difficulties
in nursing, educational needs and attitudes about using ethics resources. Nursing
Ethics, 20(3), 348-358. doi:10.1177/0969733012455565
Quote #1: “Only 23.8% of the nurses have asked for advice about ethical problems, but a majority of respondents stated that they would be willing to do so (90.3%).”
Quote # 2: “The high percentage of respondents who expressed the need for ethics advice (90.3 %) highlights the need to increase ethical support services in healthcare facilities.”
Evaluation Annotation:
These are results from a questionnaire which was administered to 374 nurses attending a specialist training and a lifetime learning program in Italy. It was a study done by the University of L’Aquila, Italy, to see if medical institutions are able to effectively support nursing care professionals during times of ethical difficulties. The results show that 90.3% of the sample population expressed the need for ethical advice, concluding in a need to increase ethical support services in healthcare facilities. This information shows that nurses do not have the proper mental or emotional support when it comes to dealing with an ethical dilemma with their patients. It presents the opinion that medical facilities are not properly training nurses to deal with issues of ethics during patient care.
Body Paragraph
Milton, C. L. (2010). Nursing ethics and power in position. Nursing science quarterly,
23(1), 18-21.
Quote #1: “In fact, as the emphasis on professionalism continues to grow, nurses should be able to demonstrate the significance of their unique perspective for different realms in the health care arena, including those of ethics and moral reasoning.”
Quote #2: “As unique individuals, persons interact with the world in personal ways; perception is subjective and based on individuality of experience, history, and context.”
Evaluation Annotation
This source discusses thoughts which oppose my thesis statement. The article explores how a nurse’s distinct perspective on the moral matters of health care can stem from knowledge developed through the daily activities of nursing practice. The first quotation states how nurses are expected to have an exceptional perspective in any situation they come across including those which require ethical reasoning. The second quote explains that an individual’s perception is based on their environment and experience. So the reaction of an individual in a moral dilemma is just as unique as the individual. You cannot change an individual’s perception on a subject, but you can control how it is channeled in a professional work environment. These quotations can help express the idea that just because ethics cannot be changed in an individual doesn’t mean they cannot be channeled in professional settings.
Blondeau, D. (2002). Nursing art as a practical art: the necessary relationship between
nursing art and nursing ethics. Nursing Philosophy, 3(3), 252-259.
Qoute #1: “Nursing art is subordinated to nursing ethics and as such is a moral art.”
Quote #2: “Nursing is conceived as a practical art, ethical considerations enter into the carrying out of all activities.”
Evaluation Annotation:
This source is an article which compares nursing care on a scientific level versus nursing care on an ethical level. The results expressed that no matter how scientific a nurse’s approach is in the patient’s healing process, it cannot be completed without real ethical concerns. To care for a patient is an art of morals supported by an art of science. Some nurses just need help understanding that statement. These quotations can help me close out my last thoughts in my conclusion.
How does the media use by children affect their social and emotional development?
Unraveling New Media’s Effects on Children
Tamico Miller
ENG 240
Instructor:  Melissa Davis
Unraveling new media’s effects on children
Summary of the “Unraveling New Media’s Effects on Children” by Rebecca A. Clay
In this article, the author Rebecca Clay discusses about programs on the media’s programs, for instance the violence program may affect the children’s life. She also states that, there exist programs, for instance, Sesame Street, DORA, which might be quite an educational program for kids.
In this article, Clay tries to unravel the impact of the internet on children. According to the article, participating in violent video games contain some negative effects on the children’s behaviors and attitudes. For instance, television influences the children’s thinking and behavior, and various advertisers have had to invest literally billions of dollars by trying to influence the perceptions, behaviors and choices of children through advertising. A good example, involves advertisements from fast food industry, and this ads affects children as it pose risk of obesity epidemic.
On the other hand, the article states that the internet and television can have some positive effects on the child. Clay points out that, there exists no evidence that television rapid-fire editing style has had to shorten the children’s attention spans. In essence, the producers of the television should just focus less attention on the way a show looks and more on making the contents quite understandable. This will make it positive on the children. The author, Clay, demonstrates that, television that is on all the time makes it part of the home environment. He demonstrated this by having an under 3 year old in some lab and watching the way she plays with toys and interacts with parents with and without a television on in the background. The author states that, the child also watched a “Blue’s Clues” pilot 17 times and then she lost interest, prompting the research on the effect of repetition. As such, repetition on television reinforces learning and does not make children television addict (American Psychological Association, 2014).
Response to the “Unraveling New Media’s Effects on Children”
In my opinion, internet and television and any digital media is just but a tool, in which case if our children use it wisely, they can educate themselves and also find some entertainment. Various excellent shows, as demonstrated in Clay’s article, are quite vital to children’s learning. A good example is Sesame Street and Blue Clues. According to me, television expands children’s horizons. That said, I tend to agree with the author of the above article, Clay, because she mentions the merits and demerits of the digital media on children. I agree with her that televisions sometimes limit our children.
I agree with the author that digital media and televisions may results in violent behavior amongst children. In most cases, many have heard that exposure of children to media links them to violence and violent behavior. Media violence also contributes to desensitization to violence, aggressive behavior and also the fear of inflicted harm. I think also children will become immune to the horrors of violence, and hence, they gradually accept violence as some way of finding solutions to problems they encounter. This, according to me, is an imitation of what they observe on Television, and they also identify with victims or victimizers they see on Television. It is also known that the more hours that children spend on watching television makes them to display aggressive impulses and also have hostile feelings.
Reading through the article of Johnson Clay, I would say the article is quite shallow and does not explore deeper the effects of media on children. There are many effects apart from the violence behavior. I can also add to what the author did not mention as dangers of the digital media. The author did not add that, children who watches television all the times usually start smoking at an early age, and this is because a child who watches television is influenced on starting smoking than parental smoking or peer smoking. There is also the exposure to alcohol use and sexual content, in which case it increases the possibility that children might become quite sexually active much earlier in life. Children also might perform dismally in school. This is because television viewing by children may make them to replace reading, doing homework and getting enough sleep among others. Other behavior includes sleep problems and weight gain.
I also agree with Johnson Clay that, the digital media and television can be a good thing, and this is because children can learn. In essence, preschoolers may learn the alphabets on television, while grade scholars may learn about wildlife on the nature shows. I tend to agree that television can be an entertainer and an excellent educator.  In essence, every television program teaches something on children. Digital media may teach children also on how to relate to the real-world social lives, although this is not always the case, unless they apply what they learn from television into real life.
In brief this article is meant to portray that, it has come to the attention to researchers, psychologists and parents that, the media might have some effect on the children’s cognitive, emotional and social development. And Johnson goes ahead to point some little harm the digital media and television have on children. In essence, this article helps in pointing out the positive side of education of the internet, and this is because it has the proper research and facts concerning the good cause of the digital media. In brief, Rebecca, A. Clay was just trying to pass the bad side and the good side of the internet, television and digital media in general. She could have added some items on the bad side and also she could have added what should be done to avoid the bad side of the digital media.
Thesis Statements

  1. How do the digital media, television and internet affect children’s ability to learn?
  2. How does the media use by children affect their social and emotional development?
  3. What needs to be added in the Johnson Clay’s article?

American Psychological Association. (2014). Unraveling new media’s effects on children.         Retrieved from

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